Lawrence J. Baack is a retired professor of Modern European History, specializing in 18th and 19th Century Germany and Scandinavia. He also has a research speciality in Antarctica. He is a Phi Beta Kappa and Honors graduate of the University of California, Berkeley, and received his Ph. D. from Stanford University. In retirement he has been a Visiting Scholar in History at Berkeley. He is the author of works on Prussia in the early 19th Century, on agrarian reform in 18th Century Denmark and a number of other studies including ones in the history of science and exploration. He has also participated in the United States Government's exploration and research activites in Antarctica, and is a former officer in the United States Navy.